Journal of Applied Health Sciences and Medicine

Research Article

Investigating the Correlation Between ABO Blood groups in COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma Donors and anti-SARS CoV-2 IgG Antibody Levels: A Retrospective study

  • By Shweta Ranjan, Bankim Das, Neha Singh, Rakesh Kumar, Saurabh Lahare, Nishith Nayan - 25 May 2024
  • Journal of Applied Health Sciences and Medicine, Volume: 4, Issue: 4, Pages: 1 - 12
  • https://doi.org/10.58614/jahsm441
  • Received: March 16, 2024; Accepted: May 10, 2024; Published: May 25, 2024

Abstract

Background and Objectives: ABO blood groups have been associated with the pathogenesis of various diseases and their association with COVID-19 disease severity and anti-SARS CoV-2 IgG antibody response have been largely studied. This study aimed at determining the association between COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) donor ABO blood groups and post-infection anti-SARS CoV-2 IgG antibody levels. Materials and Methods: A total of 404 CCP donors were included in the study conducted from September 2020 to May 2021. Donor samples were tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody level (S/CO value) using VITROS Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG chemiluminescence immunoassay which is a qualitative assay. Blood groups and number of donations with low (S/CO=1.0-4.42), medium (S/CO=4.62-18.45) and high levels (S/CO >18.45) of the antibody were compared using Chi-square test. Antibody levels during three stratified post-infection periods (0-60 days, 61-120 days and >120 days) in different blood groups were compared using Kruskal Wallis ANOVA test, while inter-blood group comparisons of antibody levels were performed by independent t-tests. Result: Mean antibody level was the lowest in O group (17.22±9.2) followed by A (17.59±11.4), B (18.21±10.7) and AB (19.91±9.7) groups. Analysis of antibody levels according to blood groups was statistically insignificant (p value > 0.05). Antibody levels during stratified post-infection periods according to blood groups as well as inter-blood group comparisons of antibody levels were also not significant. Conclusion: AB blood group had the highest but not significant anti-SARS CoV-2 IgG antibody levels. However, ABO blood groups do not influence antibody levels in CCP donors irrespective of post-infection period.

Keywords: COVID-19, convalescent plasma, ABO blood group, anti-SARS CoV-2 IgG antibodies, antibody levels, CCP donors