Journal of Applied Health Sciences and Medicine

Research Article

A clinicoepidemiological study on kala-zar disease from areas infested with the Leishmania donovani in Al-Muthanna province, Iraq

  • By Ali Jawad Alyasiri, Hasan Hadi Ali - 18 Mar 2024
  • Journal of Applied Health Sciences and Medicine, Volume: 4, Issue: 2, Pages: 14 - 28
  • Received: November 11, 2023; Accepted: March 1, 2024; Published: March 18, 2024


Kala azar is a predominant parasitic disease with different clinical manifestations in Al-Muthanna. It represents an important public health problem because of its impact on many individuals, its spread and deaths, as well as the difficulties in applying effective control measures. Therefore, this current study was conducted to describe the demographic and epidemiological features of kala azar disease in the province. A descriptive study was applied to twenty five patients selected from the province, six in Al-Rumaitha Hospital, ten in the Children's Hospital in Al-Samawa, five cases in Al-Khidr Hospital, in addition to four cases in Al- Warka, and these cases were distributed as four in 2016, three in 2017, three in 2018, eight patients in 2019, four patients in 2020 and three patients in 2021. Collect and analyze data such as gender, age, season of infection, time of illness, method of diagnosis, patient outcome, clinical symptoms and place of residence through descriptive statistics. The highest percentage of kala azar was in females by (60 %), and the study showed that the highest percentage of visceral leishmaniasis cases was in January and February, and it began to decline gradually, reaching its lowest rate in August. It was also found that the highest incidence of visceral kala azar was in the age group 1-4 years, while the lowest rate was in the older age group. The geographical distribution of kalazar showed a high percentage of infection in Al-samawa city, with regard to the difference between urban and rural areas, the data revealed the highest recording of cases in rural areas, while the rates were lowest in urban areas. For patients who received health care, the cases of recovery from kalazar were higher by (80%), and it was also noted that the highest percentage of clinical symptoms associated with infection in all patients are spleen enlargement and anemia, followed by enlargement of the liver and lymph nodes in lower rates.
Kala azar is likely to affect the rural areas of Al-Muthanna. According to the epidemiological features of visceral leishmaniasis in the county, this disease remains a health hazard and must be managed, under a unified mechanism of control and prevention. Thus, measures such as staff training, screening in endemic areas, and more efforts in rural areas can be beneficial.