Journal of Applied Health Sciences and Medicine https://jpub.org/journal/index.php/jahsm <p><em>Journal of Applied Health Sciences and Medicine (ISSN: 2583-1887) is</em> an international open access peer reviewed journal which provides an advanced forum for studies related to all aspects of multidisciplinary medicine and healthcare research. It publishes surveys papers, regular research papers and brief communications. Our aim is to encourage the scientists and analysts to publish their experimental and theoretical results more detail as conceivable. Consequently, there's no confinement on the length of the papers. The complete exploratory points of interest must be given so that the results can be reproduced.</p> <p>Journal title : Journal of Applied Health Sciences and Medicine<br />Abbreviated: J. Appl. Health Sci. Med.<br />ISSN (Online): 2583-1887<br />Year Started : 2021<br />Frequency : Monthly (from August 2022)<br />Upcoming Issues:<strong> September</strong><br />Language : English<br />Review Process: Peer review<br />Any queries : jahsm21@gmail.com <br />Note: official email communication from [user]@jpub.org only<br />Format of Publication : Online<br />Publisher: Jagua Publication, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India<br />Editor-in-Chief : Prof. Dr. Paolo Sossai, University of Camerino, Italy.</p> <p> </p> Jagua Publication en-US Journal of Applied Health Sciences and Medicine 2583-1887 Thoughts on The Sars-Cov-2 Pandemic: Healthcare Systems, Economy, Ukrainian-Russian War https://jpub.org/journal/index.php/jahsm/article/view/38 <p>The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and subsequent COVID-19, which has caused more than 6 million deaths worldwide, has shed light on certain interesting elements of global healthcare systems.</p> Paolo Sossai Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-29 2022-06-29 2 2 1 4 A short Review of Recent Advances in Cancer Gene Therapy in relation to Chemotherapy for the Treatment of Breast and Prostate Cancer https://jpub.org/journal/index.php/jahsm/article/view/21 <p>Prostate and breast cancer are two of the most common cancers in Western countries. In advanced illness, current treatments are ineffective. Gene therapy has become an essential tool as a result of recent advancements in cancer molecular biology and gene engineering research. Gene therapy is one of the most recent medical breakthroughs, and it offers significant advantages over chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is a treatment that employs powerful chemicals to kill malignant cells in the body that are quickly developing and can harm healthy cells. Cells in numerous regions of your body, including blood, hair, skin, and the lining of your intestine, may be impacted. As a result, adverse effects such as easy bruising and heavy bleeding may occur. Dry mouth and diarrhea mouth ulcers fever fatigue hair thinning a decrease in appetite nausea vomiting discomfort associated with weight reduction, injury, infections, anemia, constipation, and neuropathy are all possible causes. Issues with memory difficulties with concentrating alterations in the skin Insomnia, sexual changes, and fertility problems are all examples of nail alterations. Various gene therapy approaches, pro-drug activating suicide gene therapy, anti-angiogenic gene therapy, oncolytic virotherapy, and gene therapy immunological regulation, and genetic modification of apoptotic and tumor invasion pathways, have been implicated in cancer treatment. The development of more stable and nontoxic gene carriers that encase and transmit foreign genetic elements into malignant cells is known as gene therapy. Some viruses have been tampered with to allow them to transmit genetic material to the host. The transfer of genetic material from one creature to another is carried out via vectors. Adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, and retrovirus are examples of transformed viruses. Researchers are advised to employ cationic in nature, non-viral vectors are frequently cationic in nature. Additionally, there are liposomes and cationic peptides. Conventional liposomes /DNA complexes, such as liposomes/DNA complexes, have not performed as well as the recently introduced preparation of liposomes Liposomes, Protamine, and DNA (lipoplexes). Despite being less effective than viral vectors, non-viral vectors they are safer, simpler to produce, and have a high gene-encapsulating capacity. The purpose of this research is to fill in the gaps in our knowledge about the advantages of cancer gene therapy over chemotherapy in the treatment of breast and prostate cancer.</p> Amaechi Dennis Ini Ekpe B.N. Yisa Copyright (c) 2022 Amaechi Dennis, Ini Ekpe, B.N. Yisa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-29 2022-06-29 2 2 5 12 Factors Affecting Treatment Outcomes Of Drug Resistance Tuberculosis Among Patients On Therapy At Lira Regional Referral Hospital In Lira District, Northern Uganda https://jpub.org/journal/index.php/jahsm/article/view/23 <p>Drug-resistance tuberculosis (DR-TB) remains a big challenge with Multi-drug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensive drug-resistance tuberculosis (XDR-TB) being the worst forms. The burden DR-TB in Africa is very high and the World Health Organization estimated that about 36000 to 44000 cases occurred in the Africa region but the actual cases could be more than the estimates due to lack of diagnostic equipment’s, technical skills and knowledge in detection of DR-TB. This study presents findings in Lira regional referral hospital which is one of the hospitals serving Northern part of Uganda. The study investigated factors associated with treatment outcomes of Drug-resistance tuberculosis (DR-TB) among patients on therapy at Lira regional referral hospital in Northern Uganda. The study explored a descriptive cross-sectional design with quantitative data collection method to gather data. Data was cleaned, analyzed using spss version 20 and factors affecting treatment outcome was measured using chi-square test at 95% Confident interval, factors with P-value greater than 0.05 were considered significantly associated with treatment outcomes. The study found out than male 38 (97.2%) were more than female 10 (20.2%), Catholics 26(54.2%) and Protestants 20 (41.7%) dominated the study population. In individual factors affecting treatment outcomes were Alcohol consumption, Smoking (p-value 0.033), Lack of family support (p-value 0.034), stigma and discrimination (p-value 0.041). Health system factors include distance to the health facility (p-value 0.001), shortages of drugs (p-value 0.048) drug refills (p-value 0.000) and monitoring of patients and adherence supports (p-value 0.005) were significantly associated with management and treatment outcomes of DR-TB. In conclusion, despites of efforts made by the government to control and prevent TB, Lira regional referral hospital still lack effective diagnostic equipment’s to easy identification of incidence cases.</p> Solomon Icel Holga Zena Copyright (c) 2022 Solomon Icel, Holga Zena https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-29 2022-06-29 2 2 13 20 Anti-Fertility Role of Aegle Marmelos (Bael) https://jpub.org/journal/index.php/jahsm/article/view/29 <p>Antifertility agents are those which are capable of stopping ovulation or fertilization. Man uses a variety of herbs and plant extracts to treat and relieve physical and mental illnesses. Aegle marmelos (L.), also known as Bael, is a spiny tree that belongs to the family Rutaceae. Due to the numerous medicinal properties that this tree possesses, it has been utilised extensively in traditional Indian medicine. The fact that bael contains a wide Its phytochemical composition, which includes alkaloids, tannins, essential oils, gums, resins, coumarin, and polysaccharide, enables it to treat a wide range of conditions. It has been demonstrated that the leaf, seed, and fruit of the A. marmelos plant all have reversible effects on male fertility. A. marmelos bark extract is high in marmin and fagarine, both of which are known to reduce male fertility. In Aegle marmelos bark, two chemical compounds such as marmin and fagarine are present which is claimed to be responsible for the reduction of male fertility.</p> Arun Kumar Srivastava Vinay Kumar Singh Copyright (c) 2022 ARUN KUMAR- SRIVASTAVA, Vinay Kumar Singh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-29 2022-06-29 2 2 21 25 Patient Dose Estimation during Radiological X-Ray Procedures of Lower Extremities https://jpub.org/journal/index.php/jahsm/article/view/39 <p>The use of X-ray to investigate the lower extremities plays an important role in the health system of the country. During these radiological procedures a significant amount of radiation dose received by the patients’ organs in most cases the skin organ that must be assessed to prevent patient from danger of radiation such as Cancer. The purpose of this research is to estimate the radiation doses received by the patients undergoing lower extremities x-ray examinations. The study was conducted in Kebbi State’s referral hospitals such as Sir Yahaya Memorial Hospital [SMH] and Federal Medical Centre [FMC] for the period of six month in order to determine the radiation dose received during lower extremities radiographic examination, covering a sample of 150 patients. The exposure factors such as kilovolt (kV), exposure time product (mAs), Film Focus Distance (FFD), Focus to Skin Distance (FSD) and patient’s age were recorded in the data collection form designed and entered into excel spreadsheet. Entrance Skin Dose was calculated using Mathematical expression incorporated into excels spreadsheet. The mean exposure parameters and ESD were estimated using statistical software. The mean ESD values calculated were used for determination of diagnostic reference level for all procedures. Inter-centre comparisons were performed and found that, the SMH results are significantly higher than FMC as a result of variation in exposure factors. The ESD results were well compared with other studies and found to be higher remarkably in some examinations. The diagnostic reference level results were obtained and compared between two centers but found to be higher in SMH than in FMC. The inconsistency in selecting exposure factors for same procedure in the two centers may lead to the over exposure of patients unnecessarily. Therefore, there is need for justification and optimization of some radiological procedures performed in the two centers.</p> B. Samaila Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-29 2022-06-29 2 2 26 30 Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C among HIV Patients attending Wuse District Hospital Abuja, Nigeria https://jpub.org/journal/index.php/jahsm/article/view/34 <p>Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus are among the clinical conditions of public health importance with high morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. These two infections share common route of transmission that puts HIV positive individuals at risk of co-infection with HBV. It is therefore necessary to document the seroprevalence of HBV among HIV patients in Abuja. Materials and Methods: The seroprevalence of HBV among HIV patients attending Wuse district hospital in Abuja was studied using the Rapid Test Detection (RTD) strips, Methods involving Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) (PCR). Non-HIV volunteers in the same area served as control. DNA and RNA were extracted with zymo extraction kits, the genes purity quantified by Nanodrop 1000 and amplified by 9700 Applied Biosystem Thermocycler. The amplicons were resolved by Agarose Gel Electrophoresis. Phylogenetic analysis and sequencing were done by Inquaba South Africa and data analysed statistically with Graphpad prism version 7. A total of four hundred (400) subjects were involved in the study using Stratified Random Sampling method; two hundred (200) HIV patients from the district hospital and two hundred (200) for the Non-HIV volunteers within Abuja Municipal. Results: The prevalence of hepatitis B in Wuse district hospital using RTD was 4% as against 20% when PCR method was used. The phylogenetic analysis of HIV revealed HIV1 isolate closely related to AF069943.1 HIV-1 isolate with 2,538 bp genomic DNA obtained in 1995 from a hospitalized individual from Maiduguri, Borno state, Nigeria. The prevailing HBV genotype was HBV genotype E. Conclusion: The findings of this research confirm that HBV is a major co-morbid infection and a threat to HIV patients. The PCR is the best method of diagnosis. The government should improve in creating awareness and vaccinating the populace to reduce the prevalence of these infections.</p> Obum-Nnadi C. N Oyeka, C. A Ezenwa C. M Amaechi Dennis Copyright (c) 2022 Amaechi Dennis, Obum-Nnadi C. N, Oyeka, C. A, Ezenwa C. M https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-29 2022-06-29 2 2 31 40 Pemphigus Vulgaris Confined to the Gingiva https://jpub.org/journal/index.php/jahsm/article/view/40 <p>Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV) is an intraepithelial blistering disease that frequently affects the skin and mucous membranes. The oral mucosa is frequently affected in pemphigus patients. It does not have any gender preferences and can affect both men and women aged 40 to 60. In many patients, oral lesions may be the only initial indication of the disease. Oral lesions may be followed by skin lesions in some patients. PV manifests as blisters and erosions of the skin and the mucous membrane. Timely diagnosis and treatment of oral lesions is important. It is a challenge to diagnose PV with oral lesions because of their nonspecific presentations. The lesions are superficial erosions or ulcerations. Intact bullae are difficult to find but when found may be filled with clear liquid. Lesions may occur anywhere on the oral mucosa including gingiva. Gum inflammation or desquamative gingivitis is less common compared to other muco - cutaneous conditions such as mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) or oral lichen planus. This paper describes a case of a patient presenting with a three years history of painful and burning sensation of gingiva, which was earlier misdiagnosed and treated as gingivitis. Finally, it was diagnosed as a case of pemphigus vulgaris.</p> Gyan Prasad Bajgai Karma Tobgyel Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-29 2022-06-29 2 2 41 44 Social Factors and Pattern of Blood Pressure Distribution among Academic Staff of Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba- Akoko https://jpub.org/journal/index.php/jahsm/article/view/41 <p>Aim: This study investigated the social factors and distribution pattern of blood pressure among the faculty of Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba- Akoko (AAUA). Methods: It involved concurrently applying mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. The questionnaire and measurements of blood pressure and pulse rate were utilised as data collection instruments. The examined population includes the entire AAUA academic staff. Participants were selected for the study using multistage sampling procedures. In the first stage, five faculties of the university were chosen using a simple random sampling method. In the second stage, systematic sampling techniques were used to select participants for the study; a sample frame was comprised of academic staff from every fifth academic staff office at the selected faculties. Two instruments were used for data collection in this study. A self-designed questionnaire and an electronic sphygmomanometer were the instruments. Using the mean and standard deviation at a significance level of 0.05, the data were analyzed. Results: Findings on gender revealed that male staff displayed the highest blood pressure before examination (mean = 1.70), during examination (mean = 2.39) and after examination (mean = 1.79). On status the study further revealed academic staff at the level of a Reader exhibited the highest level of blood pressure before examination (mean = 2.00), during examination Readers (mean = 2.80) and after examination, Readers showed the highest level of blood pressure (mean = 2.00). Also on family type, the study also revealed that academic staffs who are polygamist displayed the highest blood pressure before examination (mean = 2.33), during examination (mean = 3.33) and after examination (mean = 2.33) than staff who are singles or monogamist. Conclusions: It is recommended that academic staffs are encouraged to devise comfortable means of harmonizing their professional and personal life so as to bring about healthy performance and avoidance of stress.</p> Adeleke O R Adedugbe B O Adedayo O O Elumaro A I Fadero E O Fagboye R S Olatunji K J Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-29 2022-06-29 2 2 45 53