Current Research in Interdisciplinary Studies

Research Article

Evaluation of Heavy Metals and Health Risk Assessment of Shellfish Contaminated in Santa Barbara River, Niger Delta, Nigeria

  • By Victor Ighariemu, Matthew Owhonda Wegwu, Lawrence Chijoke Chuku - 01 Jan 2023
  • Current Research in Interdisciplinary Studies, Volume: 2, Issue: 1, Pages: 1 - 20
  • Received: December 6, 2022; Accepted: December 20, 2022; Published: January 1, 2023


Heavy metals are metal with relative high density known to cause adverse effects on humans health through the food chain. Edible parts of different shellfish species Crab (Cardisoma crassum), Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), Crayfish (Decapoda reptania) and Shrimp (Penaeus notalis) were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) for various concentrations of Pb, Cr, Ni and Hg. Concentrations of Pb and Cr in all shellfish species were above the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization permissible limit, while Ni and Hg were below detection limit. The heavy metal concentration in shellfish arranged in increasing order were Cardisoma crassum > Macrobrachium rosenbergii > Decapoda reptania > Penaeus notalis. The dangers to human health of eating shellfish from the Santa Barbara River in Nembe Bayelsa State were assessed. With the exception of Ni and Hg, the target hazard quotient (THQ) showed significant concern for ingestion of these shellfish. The hazard index (HI) suggests a high risk of human carcinogenesis. According to the life cancer risk (LCR) and total life cancer risk (TLCR) values, Pb and Cr levelswere notably high in youngsters. In conclusion, the very high quantity of these metals may be hazardous to shellfish directly or indirectly to people who regularly eat contaminated seafood. The consumption of fish from the Santa Barbara River in the Niger Delta may be hazardous to human health.

Keywords: Heavy metal, Shellfish, Human health, Hazard index, Niger Delta