Current Research in Interdisciplinary Studies

Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern of different Bacteria Associated with female Genital tract Infection in Rural Communities in North central Nigeria

  • By C.N. Obum-Nnadi, Dennis Amaechi, C. M. Ezenwa, C.J. Nduibisi, A. S. David - 13 Nov 2022
  • Received: 25.6.2022; Accepted: 17.7.2022; Published: 23.8.2022

  • Current Research in Interdisciplinary Studies, 1(2): 17 – 29, 2022

Abstract

Genital tract infections (GTI) are infections of the reproductive system which are caused by pathogenic organisms normally present in the reproductive tract, or introduced from the outside during sexual contact or medical procedures. Infectious agents can impair various important human functions, including reproduction. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites are able to interfere with the reproductive function in both sexes. Antibiotic susceptibility testing is commonly used in Medical Microbiology (1) the disc diffusion technique and (2) the tube dilution method. Both methods identify the infecting pathogen and the antibiotics that are likely to inhibit its growth. This study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria in the genital tract of females in rural communities in FCT Abuja, Nigeria. A total of 75 samples were collected from 32 women of the age ranging from 21 to 60 years which include; clean catch mid stream urine, High Vaginal Swab-HVS and Endocervical Swab-ECS samples. The samples were inoculated immediately after collection in the laboratory on chocolate and MacConkey agar. Microscopy of the samples was carried out using wet preparation method they were placed on a clean grease free glass slide, covered with cover slip and viewed under the microscope using low power (X10) and high power (X40) objectives. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed on all isolated bacteria using the Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar. Five (5) different bacteria isolates namely Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Coliform bacilli, Serretia marcescens, Pseudomonas were identified. The female samples within the age group of 25–52 years, showed higher prevalence of Genital Tract Infection (GTI), 61.3% of the isolates were found to be Gram positive while 28.2% were found to be Gram negative bacteria. Staphylococcus spp (61.3%) was the most prevalent grampositive isolate. Most of the Gram-negative isolates resisted Nalixidic acid, Ceporex and Septrin among all other Gram-negative disc used. 92.26% and 84.52% of the Gram-negative and Gram positive isolates respectively, were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin. This study reveals that about 50% of female in the rural communities in Abuja between the ages of 21 and 60 years are living with GIT. Both the Gram-negative and the Gram-positive isolates were highly sensitive to Ciprofloxacin. Hence ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic. The abuse of antibiotics should be discouraged to prevent the increase of antimicrobial resistant cases so as to eradicate these bacterial infections. Finally, the Public Health and epidemiology Department in Federal Capital Territory Abuja should create awareness on personal hygiene in all the rural Communities in Abuja to avoid these infections.

Keywords: Antibiotics, bacteria, gram positive, Escherichia coli and resistant