Journal of Applied Health Sciences and Medicine

A short Review of Recent Advances in Cancer Gene Therapy in relation to Chemotherapy for the Treatment of Breast and Prostate Cancer

  • By Dennis Amaechi*, I.P. Ekpe, B.N. Yisa - 11 Nov 2022
  • Received: 2.4.2022 • Accepted: 9.5.2022 • Published: 29.6.2022

  • Journal of Applied Health Sciences and Medicine, 2(2): 5 – 12, 2022

Abstract

Prostate and breast cancer are two of the most common cancers in Western countries. In advanced illness, current treatments are ineffective. Gene therapy has become an essential tool as a result of recent advancements in cancer molecular biology and gene engineering research. Gene therapy is one of the most recent medical breakthroughs, and it offers significant advantages over chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is a treatment that employs powerful chemicals to kill malignant cells in the body that are quickly developing and can harm healthy cells. Cells in numerous regions of your body, including blood, hair, skin, and the lining of your intestine, may be impacted. As a result, adverse effects such as easy bruising and heavy bleeding may occur. Dry mouth and diarrhea mouth ulcers fever fatigue hair thinning a decrease in appetite nausea vomiting discomfort associated with weight reduction, injury, infections, anemia, constipation, and neuropathy are all possible causes. Issues with memory difficulties with concentrating alterations in the skin Insomnia, sexual changes, and fertility problems are all examples of nail alterations. Various gene therapy approaches, pro-drug activating suicide gene therapy, anti-angiogenic gene therapy, oncolytic virotherapy, and gene therapy immunological regulation, and genetic modification of apoptotic and tumor invasion pathways, have been implicated in cancer treatment. The development of more stable and nontoxic gene carriers that encase and transmit foreign genetic elements into malignant cells is known as gene therapy. Some viruses have been tampered with to allow them to transmit genetic material to the host. The transfer of genetic material from one creature to another is carried out via vectors. Adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, and retrovirus are examples of transformed viruses. Researchers are advised to employ cationic in nature, non-viral vectors are frequently cationic in nature. Additionally, there are liposomes and cationic peptides. Conventional liposomes /DNA complexes, such as liposomes/DNA complexes, have not performed as well as the recently introduced preparation of liposomes Liposomes, Protamine, and DNA (lipoplexes). Despite being less effective than viral vectors, non-viral vectors they are safer, simpler to produce, and have a high gene-encapsulating capacity. The purpose of this research is to fill in the gaps in our knowledge about the advantages of cancer gene therapy over chemotherapy in the treatment of breast and prostate cancer.

Keywords: Gene therapy, breast cancer, prostate cancer, vectors, immune modulation